Thursday, 6 March 2008

Infallibility 2

'Infallibility' means protection from sin or error

I argued last time that, when discussing an issue in the Faith, we should start with what Baha'u'llah has to say about it. This time I will look at how Baha'u'llah defines the concept of infallibility.

Baha'u'llah's definition is given in Ishraqat (Splendors), which is found in Tablets of Baha'u'llah, p 108. In an email message about infallibility that I published on my blog last year, Sen McGlinn gave a literal translation of the relevant passage. Recently, I obtained from Sen a slightly revised translation of the first three sentences. With thanks to Sen, here they are:

"Know that infallibility (`is.mat) has diverse meanings and stations. If God guards (`s.mahu) someone from slipping (az-zalal), God confers upon him this name (infallible) as a station (fii maqaam). Similarly if God has guarded someone from sin (khataa'), rebellion (`is.yaan), impiety (`iraaz), disbelief (kufr), joining partners with God (shirk) or the like, God grants each of them the name of 'infallibility.'"

First up, let's deal with discrepancies with the official translation, which says:

"Know thou that the term 'Infallibility' hath numerous meanings and divers stations. In one sense it is applicable to the One Whom God hath made immune from error. Similarly it is applied to every soul whom God hath guarded against sin, transgression, rebellion, impiety, disbelief and the like." (Baha'u'llah: Tablets of Baha'u'llah, p 108)

Sen explains that "in one sense" is not in the original Arabic. Moreover, the capitalisation of the word "One" in the second sentence is an interpretation of the translator, which Sen argues is incorrect. The word "one" should not be capitalised, which means that, in this short passage, Baha'u'llah is talking about infallibility in general, as it applies to everyone and not specifically to the manifestation. He introduces the infallibility of the manifestation (the Most Great Infallibility) in the next sentence. But here I am concerned with the general meaning of 'infallibility' as it applies to ordinary humans.

What is Baha'u'llah saying about infallibility in this passage? First of all, he tells us that it has diverse meanings and diverse stations. Note that this is the opposite to the claim of John Hatcher that "Infallibility admits of no degrees". Instead, Baha'u'llah is telling us that it has a diversity of meanings in a diversity of stations or levels. In this sense, it is like the word "sun" in the scriptures, which Baha'u'llah explains in the Iqan has many meanings, each depending on the station one is looking at; for example, 'sun' refers to the manifestations and the holy ones, the divines of a previous dispensation who live in the time of a new revelation, and the laws and teachings of each religion such as prayer and fasting.

If you look again at the first sentence of Sen's translation, you'll see that the Arabic word "`is.mat" follows the word "infallibility" in brackets. Sen has added that word in brackets to indicate that it is the Arabic word being translated here as "infallibility". Without going into detail about the way Arabic works, I'll simply say that the word "`is.mat" comes from the Arabic root "`s.m", which means to guard or protect. Sen explains: "Baha'u'llah is emphasising that the word `is.mat comes from the verb `s.m, to guard or protect, and the concept 'infallible' means that God has protected someone from something - in the first case, from a slip."

Let's recap what we have so far: infallibility applies to a person who God has guarded or protected from slipping. From this, we know at least two things:

  1. that infallibility is about being protected from slipping (in the first instance)
  2. that the word 'infallible' can be applied to any person that God has so guarded; that is, any person, not just the manifestation, and not just a leader of religion.

In the third sentence of the passage from Ishraqat (quoted above), we learn that the word 'infallible' also applies to those that God has guarded from other wrongs such as sin, rebellion, impiety, disbelief, and joining partners with God.

"Similarly if God has guarded someone from sin (khataa'), rebellion (`is.yaan), impiety (`iraaz), disbelief (kufr), joining partners with God (shirk) or the like, God grants each of them the name of 'infallibility.'"

Examples of 'infallibility' being applied to believers

In order to reinforce the idea that being free from sin or error is an attribute that any person can attain and not just leaders of religion, I cite below passages from the writings where the term is used to refer to ordinary believers. I've put the relevant phrases into italics.

From Baha'u'llah:

"Thou hast mentioned Husayn. We have attired his temple with the robe of forgiveness and adorned his head with the crown of pardon. It beseemeth him to pride himself among all men upon this resplendent, this radiant and manifest bounty. Say: Be not despondent. After the revelation of this blessed verse it is as though thou hast been born anew from thy mother's womb. Say: Thou art free from sin and error. Truly God hath purged thee with the living waters of His utterance in His Most Great Prison." (Baha'u'llah: Tablets of Baha'u'llah, p77)

"O son of worldliness! Pleasant is the realm of being, wert thou to attain thereto; glorious is the domain of eternity, shouldst thou pass beyond the world of mortality; sweet is the holy ecstasy if thou drinkest of the mystic chalice from the hands of the celestial Youth. Shouldst thou attain this station, thou wouldst be freed from destruction and death, from toil and sin." (Baha'u'llah: Persian Hidden Words, p70)

From Abdu'l-Baha:

"O Thou forgiving Lord! Although some souls have spent the days of their lives in ignorance, and became estranged and contumacious, yet, with one wave from the ocean of Thy forgiveness, all those encompassed by sin will be set free." (`Abdu'l-Baha: Baha'i Prayers (US edition), p47)

"Saints are men who have freed themselves from the world of matter and who have overcome sin. They live in the world but are not of it, their thoughts being continually in the world of the spirit. Their lives are spent in holiness, and their deeds show forth love, justice and godliness." (`Abdu'l-Baha: Paris Talks, pp60-61)

"O Lord! Make this youth radiant, and confer Thy bounty upon this poor creature. Bestow upon him knowledge, grant him added strength at the break of every morn and guard him within the shelter of Thy protection so that he may be freed from error, may devote himself to the service of Thy Cause, may guide the wayward, lead the hapless, free the captives and awaken the heedless, that all may be blessed with Thy remembrance and praise. Thou art the Mighty and the Powerful." (`Abdu'l-Baha: Baha'i Prayers (US edition), pp38-39)

"This is why He says: 'I am the bread which descended from heaven; whosoever shall eat of this bread will not die'(- that) is to say, that whosoever shall partake of this divine food will attain unto eternal life: that is, every one who partakes of this bounty and receives these perfections will find eternal life, will obtain preexistent favors, will be freed from the darkness of error, and will be illuminated by the light of His guidance." (`Abdu'l-Baha: Some Answered Questions, p121)


Billy Joe said...

Why in relation to the Baha'i Faith do you keep using the term "religious leaders"? Your argument is clearly seen for what it is by the use of that term. You clearly do not understand Baha'i teachings or you do and prefer to twist them to your own agenda.

Billy Joe said...

In the Bahá'í Faith no individual leader is infallible. The institution created by Bahá'u'lláh, the Universal House of Justice--which 'Abdu'l-Bahá in his Will and Testament said we must obey--is infallible. A body which arrives at truth through consultation, not any individual's agenda. The only religious leader in the Bahá'í Faith is the institution, not individuals.

Billy Joe said...

"To epitomize: essential infallibility belongs especially to the supreme Manifestations, and acquired infallibility is granted to every holy soul. For instance, the Universal House of Justice, 3 if it be established under the necessary conditions—with members elected from all the people—that House of Justice will be under the protection and the unerring guidance of God. If that House of Justice shall decide unanimously, or by a majority, upon any question not mentioned in the Book, that decision and command will be guarded from mistake. Now the members 173 of the House of Justice have not, individually, essential infallibility; but the body of the House of Justice is under the protection and unerring guidance of God: this is called conferred infallibility."
--'Abdu'l-Bahá, Some Answered Questions

Carolyn Cannon said...

Alison -- I found the following a very interesting commentary on this same subject: Infallible Institutions? by Udo Schaefer published in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, volume 13, pages 3-37, Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 2002. I think you might find it interesting, too. From having read some of your history as a Baha'i, I laud your continued dedication to the Faith of Baha'u'llah. However, I find your on-going public criticism of 'the Baha'is' less than admirable. I am an enrolled Baha'i & do not feel I can be lumped into some general category called 'the Baha'is'. As a Baha'i, I continue to strive to attain as close to the station of a 'true seeker' as possible. I am the first to admit that our Baha'i community is nowhere near perfect. It is an on-going, daily struggle for each believer to adjust our personal lives & identities to better reflect the Revelation of Baha'u'llah. From what I have read, it appears you have suffered a real injustice at the hands of the New Zealand Baha'i institutions. Obviously, you have achieved much spiritual growth through your experiences. However, such on-going negative criticism as you are expressing is, in my view, continuing the disunity that caused your disenrollment from the Faith. I am not saying you caused the initial disunity. It, in fact, appears that individuals in positions of administrative service may have indeed been the cause & it is shocking that it was handled in such a way. I, of course, am not privy to all of the facts so can only go on what I have read. But I reiterate that I greatly admire your continued devotion to Baha'u'llah &, from reading your posts, you seem to be very much one of His followers. So, please look inside your heart to consider the possibility that the things you say & write can contribute to either unity or disunity & to continue your negative criticism is on the side of disunity. Inspite of being one of 'the Baha'is', I am a free thinker like yourself &, in my experience, there are many others within the Faith. I am often frustrated by a lack of practicing consultation appropriately within our Baha'i communities: 'The Great Being saith: The heaven of divine wisdom is illumined with the two luminaries of consultation and compassion. Take ye counsel together in all matters, inasmuch as consultation is the lamp of guidance which leadeth the way, and is the bestower of understanding'. Also: 'In all things it is necessary to consult. This matter should be forcibly stressed by thee, so that consultation may be observed by all. The intent of what hath been revealed from the Pen of the Most High is that consultation may be fully carried out among the friends, inasmuch as it is and will always be a cause of awareness and of awakening and a source of good and well-being.' It would appear that, in your case, there was a failure in the consultative process, causing an injustice to occur. Certainly, consultation can only happen when all parties concerned are AWARE of what is going on. Had you been aware of the actions of others & how you were being perceived, & had you been included in consultation about those issues, I have no doubt there would have been a very different outcome. I know this is a long comment & appreciate your patience with it...Thank you for 'listening' & I wish you well in your continued spiritual journey with our Beloved, Baha'u'llah. Your sister in Faith, Carolyn

Alison Marshall said...

Hi Carolyn,

I'm not sure you appreciate fully the facts relating to my expulsion from the Baha'i community. I was expelled at the instructions of the Universal House of Justice. My NSA only did what it was told to do.

Yes, it's true I am critical of the Baha'i community. And yes, I think you are right that I have been too critical in the past. I still think the path the community has taken under the governance of its current administration is in error. But I do not mean to discount that there are sincere Baha'is all over the planet, such as yourself.

I have little interest now in what the community does and so my focus is on teaching people about Baha'u'llah and not much else.

All the best, Alison